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超自我让你成为超级英雄(悦漫画第12集)

加入时间:2014-10-31 16:05:26 来源:悦宝园早教中心/早教网

你肯定听说过本我,自我和超自我这三个词,但你知道他们的含义吗?根据心理学的理论,我们的行为受我们大脑中这三个“小家伙”的支配。本我,负责我们最基本的需求和愿望。我要做什么,我什么时候要做什么。自我是决策者,他的工作是指明如何实现本我的愿望。但自我又受制于超我,超我负责社会需求和期望,所以超我还有一个名字——良心。

I’m sure you have heard the terms Id, Ego, and Super-Ego, but do you know what they are all about? Well, according to psychoanalytic theory, our actions result from the interaction of these three little guys in our head. The Id represents our basic needs and desires – I want what I want when I want it. The Ego is the rational decision maker – it is his job to figure out a way to get the Id what it wants. But the Ego is constrained by the Super-Ego who represents the requirements and expectations of society—in other words, your conscience.

如果你观察宝宝的行为,本我是与生俱来的。然后你再观察,随着宝宝的成长,自我很快介入并很自然的发展起来,不管宝宝有没有接受教育。但是因为超自我收到的外界影响要大于内在,所以超自我的形成不是必然的,而且要经历好几年的时间才能发挥作用。

As you can readily observe in the behavior of a baby, the Id is present at birth. And as you can see as the child grows, the Ego soon thereafter enters and steadily improves through natural development as well as formal and informal education. But since it represents external rather than internal forces, the formation of the Super-Ego is not inevitable, and even when it does arrive, it takes many years to become truly effective.

本我

自我

所以,在超自我形成的过程中,家长扮演着非常重要的角色。首先,当宝宝从心理上不能够很好的容纳超自我时,他们要适当的引导示范。同时,教导他们尊重他人,为了长远的利益要牺牲短期利好。还有其他的课程,比如说成功的人生还包括成为一个备受尊重的社会公民。

Consequently, parents have a critical role to play in the process. First of all, they must restrict and re-direct their little one appropriately while he is still psychologically incapable of doing so himself. And simultaneously, they must teach him the importance of respecting others, the long-term benefits of delayed as opposed to immediate gratification, and other lessons that will enable him to become not only a success, but a responsible citizen of the world as well.

超我

有时候这是艰苦和不快乐的,但这是重要的事。就我看来,如果你帮助你的宝宝成为一个有良心的人,你也就是那些拯救世界的超级英雄之一了!

This is sometimes a difficult and unpleasant job, but it obviously is a critical one. And in my opinion, if you do help your child develop a solid Super-Ego, that makes you a Super-Hero.

 

以上文字摘录于美国悦宝园首席顾问 Michael K. Meyerhoff博士的博客,Michael K. Meyerhoff博士曾经是哈佛大学最著名的Harvard preschool Project (哈弗早期教育项目)的主要成员。编著过3本儿童早期教育书籍,30本学术手册和100多篇学术论文。带领其研发团队为悦宝园打造1000多套创新课程。

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